Digestive system

Digestive system of honey bee

Digestive system of honey bee worker. After Michener (1974, fig 1.11) [1].

An - anus
Cb - cibarium
Cr - crop
Ephy - epipharynx
Int - intestine
Mal - Malpighian tubules
Mth - mouth
Oe - oesophagus
Phy - pharynx
Prvent - proventriculus
Rect - rectum
rp - rectal pad
Vent - ventriculus (midgut)

Hindgut consists of: pylorus, ileum, and rectum [2]. It plays an important role in haemolymph homeostasis. In hindgut water, ions and some small molecules are selectively reabsorbed from primary urine produced in the Malpighian tubules [3].