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Digestive system

Digestive system of honey bee

Digestive system of honey bee worker. After Michener (1974, fig 1.11) The social behavior of the bees: a comparative study,
, Cambridge, Mass., (1974)

An - anus
Cb - cibarium
Cr - crop
Ephy - epipharynx
Int - intestine
Mal - Malpighian tubules
Mth - mouth
Oe - oesophagus
Phy - pharynx
Prvent - proventriculus
Rect - rectum
rp - rectal pad
Vent - ventriculus (midgut)

Hindgut consists of: pylorus, ileum, and rectum Post-embryonic changes in the hindgut of honeybee Apis mellifera workers: Morphology, cuticle deposition, apoptosis, and cell proliferation,
Developmental biology
, Volume 431, Number 2, p.194–204, (2017)
[2]. It plays an important role in haemolymph homeostasis. In hindgut water, ions and some small molecules are selectively reabsorbed from primary urine produced in the Malpighian tubules Mechanisms and control of reabsorption in insect hindgut,
Advances in insect physiology
, Volume 19, p.329–422, (1987)