Circulatory system

Circulatory system of honey bee

Circulatory system of honey bee. After Snodgrass (1956, fig. 78) [1], Dade (fig. 20) [2], Krenn (1995, fig. 10d) [3].
The main part of the system is heart. It pumps haemolymph from the abdomen to the head.
Ao - aorta
dDph - dorsal diaphragm
hv - head vesicle
Ht - heart
i - convulated part of aorta
Os - ostia
pd - pulsatile diaphragm
vDph - ventral diaphragm

Other references: [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]


  1. Snodgrass R.E. (1956) Anatomy of the honey bee. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, pp. 334.
  2. Dade H.A. (1977) Anatomy and dissection of the honeybee. International Bee Research Association, London, pp. 158.
  3. Krenn H.W., Pass G. (1995) Morphological diversity and phylogenetic analysis of wing circulatory organs in insects, part II. Holometabola. Zoology 98:147–147.
  4. Freudenstein K. (1928) Das Herz und das Circulationssystem der Honigbiene (Apis mellifica L.). Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie 132:404–475.
  5. Meyer G.F. (1958) Der feinere Bau der Aorta im Thorax der Honigbiene. Cell and Tissue Research 48:635–638.
  6. Wille A. (1958) A comparative study of the dorsal vessels of bees. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 51:538–546.
  7. Arnold J.W. (1964) Blood circulation in insect wings. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 38:5-60.
  8. Cruz-Landim C. (1974) Aspectos ultra-estruturais do músculo cardíaco de Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia 34:105–113.
  9. Cruz-Landim C. (1976) Degenerative changes in heart muscle from senescent honeybee workers (Apis mellifera adansonii). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 27:1–5.
  10. Schwab E.R., Chilson R.A., Eddleman C.D. (1991) Heartbeat rate modulation mediated by the ventral nerve cord in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology 161:602–610.
  11. Matus S., Pass G. (1999) Antennal circulatory organ of Apis Mellifera L.(Hymenoptera: Apidae) and other Hymenoptera: functional morphology and phylogenetic aspects. International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 28:97–109.
  12. Pass G. (2000) Accessory pulsatile organs: evolutionary innovations in insects. Annual Review of Entomology 45:495–518.
  13. Papaefthimiou C., Theophilidis G. (2001) The cardiotoxic action of the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin, the azole fungicide prochloraz, and their synergy on the semi-isolated heart of the bee Apis mellifera macedonica. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 69:77–91.
  14. Pass G., Gereben-Krenn B.A., Merl M., Plant J., Szucsich N.U., Tögel M. (2006) Phylogenetic relationships of the orders of Hexapoda: contributions from the circulatory organs for a morphological data matrix. Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 64:165–203.
  15. Lensky Y. (1968) L'appareil circulatoire et les annexes. in: Chauvin R. (Ed.), Traité de biologie de l'abeille, vol. 1. Masson, Paris, pp. 498-514.
  16. O'Neal S.T., Anderson T.D. (2016) Dissection and Observation of Honey Bee Dorsal Vessel for Studies of Cardiac Function. JoVE (Journal of Visualized Experiments) 118:e55029.