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Circulatory system

Circulatory system of honey bee

Circulatory system of honey bee. After Snodgrass (1956, fig. 78) Anatomy of the honey bee,
, Ithaca, p.334, (1956)
[1], Dade (fig. 20) Anatomy and dissection of the honeybee,
International Bee Research Association
, London, p.158, (1977)
[2], Krenn (1995, fig. 10d) Morphological diversity and phylogenetic analysis of wing circulatory organs in insects, part II. Holometabola,
, Volume 98, p.147–147, (1995)
The main part of the system is heart. It pumps haemolymph from the abdomen to the head.
Ao - aorta
dDph - dorsal diaphragm
hv - head vesicle
Ht - heart
i - convulated part of aorta
Os - ostia
pd - pulsatile diaphragm
vDph - ventral diaphragm

Other references: Das Herz und das Circulationssystem der Honigbiene (Apis mellifica L.),
Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie
, Volume 132, p.404–475, (1928)
[4]Der feinere Bau der Aorta im Thorax der Honigbiene,
Cell and Tissue Research
, Volume 48, Number 6, p.635–638, (1958)
[5]A comparative study of the dorsal vessels of bees,
Annals of the Entomological Society of America
, Volume 51, Number 6, p.538–546, (1958)
[6]Blood circulation in insect wings,
Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada
, Volume 38, p.5-60, (1964)
[7]Aspectos ultra-estruturais do músculo cardíaco de Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae),
Revista Brasileira de Biologia
, Volume 34, Number 1, p.105–113, (1974)
[8]Degenerative changes in heart muscle from senescent honeybee workers (Apis mellifera adansonii),
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
, Volume 27, Number 1, p.1–5, (1976)
[9]Heartbeat rate modulation mediated by the ventral nerve cord in the honey bee, Apis mellifera,
Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
, Volume 161, Number 6, p.602–610, (1991)
[10]Antennal circulatory organ of Apis Mellifera L.(Hymenoptera: Apidae) and other Hymenoptera: functional morphology and phylogenetic aspects,
International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology
, Volume 28, Number 1-2, p.97–109, (1999)
[11]Accessory pulsatile organs: evolutionary innovations in insects,
Annual Review of Entomology
, Volume 45, Number 1, p.495–518, (2000)
[12]The cardiotoxic action of the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin, the azole fungicide prochloraz, and their synergy on the semi-isolated heart of the bee Apis mellifera macedonica,
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
, Volume 69, Number 2, p.77–91, (2001)
[13]Phylogenetic relationships of the orders of Hexapoda: contributions from the circulatory organs for a morphological data matrix,
Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny
, Volume 64, p.165–203, (2006)
[14]L'appareil circulatoire et les annexes,
Traité de biologie de l'abeille, vol. 1
, Paris, p. 498-514, (1968)
[15]Dissection and Observation of Honey Bee Dorsal Vessel for Studies of Cardiac Function,
JoVE (Journal of Visualized Experiments)
, Volume 118, Number 118, p.e55029, (2016)