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honey bee pretarsus

Pretarsus of honey bee worker. Pretarsi are located on the end of each leg. Rough surface is gripped by claws (upper part). On smooth surface the claws slide sideways and the surface is gripped by arolium (lower part).

For more details see Scanning electron microscopy of the honeybee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) pretarsus,
International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology
, Volume 18, Number 1, p.59–69, (1989)
[1]The pretarsus of the honeybee.,
Belgian Journal of Zoology
, Volume 147, Number 2, p.87–103, (2017)
[2]Biomechanics of the movable pretarsal adhesive organ in ants and bees,
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
, Volume 98, Number 11, p.6215–6220, (2001)
Injuries to arolia: Injuries of worker bees (Apis mellifera carnica) stored in own and stranger queenright colonies,
Journal of Apicultural Science
, Volume 58, Number 2, p.33–39, (2014)
[4]Effect of injury to honeybee queens on egg laying rate and colony strength,
Journal of Apicultural Science
, Volume 46, Issue 1, Number 1, p.75-83, (2002)
[5]Performance of artificially insaminated honeybee queens that have bodily injuries,
Journal of Apicultural Science
, Volume 52, Issue 1, Number 1, p.13-20, (2008)