Salivary glands

honey bee salivary glands

Dissected salivary glands (also called labial glands) of honey bee worker. After Snodgrass (1956, fig. 21cde) [1], Cruz-Landim (1967) [2]. (scale bar = 1 mm)

HGld - head salivary gland (also called postcerebral gland or cephalic salivary gland)
Res - reservoir of thoracic salivary gland
slDct - common salivary duct
ThGld - thoracic salivary gland


The salivary gland system comprises two pairs of exocrine glands, one in the head (head salivary glands) and one in the thorax (thoracic salivary gland). The glands are connected by common salivary duct to salivary pocket (salivarium) at the base of labium (see also side view of salivary glands). The head and thoracic glands differ in protein expression [3].

Salivary glands are well developed in queens and workers; in drones they are small [4][5][6][7]. Salivary glands of workers are more active when they are foraging [8][7][9] see also [10]. Head salivary glands of queens become more active when they start egg laying [7][9]. In drones head salivary glands degenerate when they become sexually mature [7][11].

Head salivary glands produce oily secretion [12][13] which contains mixture of hydrocarbons [14][8], imaginal disc growth factor 4 [3]. It was suggested that it is used to: soften wax [15] and lubricate mouthparts [12]. The head salivary glands can be a source of cuticular hydrocarbons [8][7]. The secretion can be added to royal jelly [3].

[16][17][18][19][20]

References

  1. Snodgrass R.E. (1956) Anatomy of the honey bee. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, pp. 334.
  2. Cruz-Landim C. (1967) Estudo comparativo de algumas glândulas das abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) e respectivas implicações evolutivas. Arq. Zool. 15:177–290.
  3. Fujita T., Kozuka-Hata H., Uno Y., Nishikori K., Morioka M., Oyama M., Kubo T. (2010) Functional analysis of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) salivary system using proteomics. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 397:740–744.
  4. Kratky E. (1931) Morphologie und Physiologie der Drusen in Kopf und Thorax der Honigbiene. Z. wiss. Zool. 139:120-200.
  5. Pasedach-Poeverlein K. (1940) Über das „Spritzen" der Bienen und über die Konzentrationsänderung ihres Honigblaseninhalts. Z Vergl Physiol 28:197–210.
  6. Simpson J. (1962) The salivary glands of Apis mellifera and their significance in caste determination. Symposia Genetica et Biologica Italica 10:173–188.
  7. Poiani S.B., Cruz-Landim C. (2010) Cephalic salivary glands of two species of advanced eusocial bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae): morphology and secretion. Zoologia 27:979–985.
  8. Katzav-Gozansky T., Soroker V., Ionescu A., Robinson G.E., Hefetz A. (2001) Task-related chemical analysis of labial gland volatile secretion in worker honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica). Journal of Chemical Ecology 27:919–926.
  9. Poiani S.B., Cruz-Landim C. (2010) Changes in the size of cephalic salivary glands of Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera: Apidae) queens and workers in different life phases. Zoologia 27:961–964.
  10. Inglesent H. (1940) Zymotic function of the pharyngeal, thoracic and post-cerebral glands of Apis mellifica. Biochemical Journal 34:1415-1418.
  11. Poiani S.B., Cruz-Landim C. (2010) Morphological changes in the cephalic salivary glands of females and males of Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Journal of Biosciences 35:249–255.
  12. Simpson J. (1960) The functions of the salivary glands of Apis mellifera. J. Insect Physiol. 4:107-121.
  13. Arnold G., Delage-Darchen B. (1978) Nouvelles données sur l'équipement enzymatique des glandes salivaires de l'ouvrière d'Apis mellifica (Hymenoptere Apide). Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zool. Biol. Anim. 20:401-422.
  14. Arnold G., Quenet B., Cornuet J.M., Masson C. (1996) Kin recognition in honeybees. Nature 379:498.
  15. Heselhaus F. (1922) Die Hautdrüsen der Apiden und verwandter Formen. Zool. Jahr. Anat. 43:369-464.
  16. Bugnion É. (1928) Les glandes salivaires de la̓beille et des apiaires en général. Librairie de vulgarisation apicole, Montfavet, pp. 64.
  17. Simpson J. (1963) The source of the saliva honeybees use to moisten materials they chew with their mandibles. Journal of Apicultural Research 2:115–116.
  18. Schönitzer K., Seifert P. (1990) Anatomy and ultrastructure of the salivary gland in the thorax of the honeybee worker, Apis mellifera (Insecta, Hymenoptera). Zoomorphology 109:211–222.
  19. Poiani S.B., Cruz-Landim C. (2009) Cephalic salivary gland ultrastructure of worker and queen eusocial bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Animal Biology 59:299–311.
  20. Feng M., Fang Y., Han B., Zhang L., Lu X., Li J. (2013) Novel aspects of understanding molecular working mechanisms of salivary glands of worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) investigated by proteomics and phosphoproteomics. Journal of Proteomics (in press).